328. TODAY IN HISTORY—MONDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 2020

U. 1942 Monday: During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a measure establishing the U.S. Women’s Coast Guard Reserve, or SPARS (an abbreviation of the U.S. Coast Guard motto “Semper Paratus”— “Always Ready”). Meanwhile, the Japanese air force bombs Port Darwin, northern Australia. Finally, on the Eastern Front, the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies find themselves surrounded in and around Stalingrad on the Volga River. The Romanian 3rd and 5th Army Corps surrenders to the Red Army outside of the city.